Gender and sex

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Gender und Sex. Birgit Sauer. Das Geschlecht ist eines der zentralen Gliederungsprinzipien einer Gesellschaft. Die Eintei- lung in Männer und Frauen ist uns. Das Geschlecht ist eines der zentralen Gliederungsprinzipien einer Gesellschaft. Die Einteilung in Männer und Frauen ist uns vergleichsweise. Die begriffliche Trennung zwischen dem biologischen Geschlecht (sex) und dem sozialen Geschlecht (gender) erschien – und erscheint immer noch – seit den. Während die Sex-Gender-Unterscheidung der feministischen Argumentation dienlich war und auch die öffentliche Diskussion über Geschlechtsunterschiede. Was ist Geschlecht? - Differenzierung zwischen "Sex" und "Gender". Der Begriff Geschlecht beschreibt die Wahrnehmung von Menschen als „weiblich“ oder.

Gender and sex

Im wissenschaftlichen Sprachgebrauch wird gender als Bezeichnung für das soziale Geschlecht und in Abgrenzung dazu sex als biologisches. Die Unterscheidung von Sex und Gender argumentiert die Trennung von biologischem Geschlecht und sozialen Zuschreibungen. Aussagen wie "Frauen sind. Was ist Geschlecht? - Differenzierung zwischen "Sex" und "Gender". Der Begriff Geschlecht beschreibt die Wahrnehmung von Menschen als „weiblich“ oder.

Lorber writes, "My perspective goes beyond accepted feminist views that gender is a cultural overlay that modifies physiological sex differences I am arguing that bodies differ in many ways physiologically, but they are completely transformed by social practices to fit into the salient categories of a society, the most pervasive of which are 'female' and 'male' and 'women' and 'men.

Discussing sex as biological fact causes sex to appear natural and politically neutral. However, she argues that "the ostensibly natural facts of sex [are] discursively produced in the service of other political and social interests.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Differentiation between sex, physical characteristics of an individual, from gender, one's behaviour or identity.

See also: Language and gender. Main article: Doing gender. Main articles: Transgender and Genderqueer.

See also: Social construction of gender and Feminist views on transgender topics. Psychology: The science of behavior. Fourth Canadian edition.

Retrieved Richard November Archived PDF from the original on Archives of Sexual Behavior. Archived from the original PDF on 25 May Archived from the original PDF on 2 September Retrieved 5 December Archived from the original PDF on 15 June Sex differences.

NY: Academic Press. Washington, D. Sex, evolution and behavior. Cengage Learning; Journal of Neonatal Surgery. December 18, Archived from the original on May 7, Retrieved May 23, Beyond Nature vs.

Nurture Archived at the Wayback Machine. The Scientist, October 1, Archived from the original on Cerebral Cortex. Press, 1st Harvard Univ.

Press pbk. L Gender Roles: A Sociological Perspective. New Jersey: Upper Saddie River. Archived from the original on 13 September Retrieved 14 April Food and Drug Administration.

December 19, Archived from the original on August 9, Retrieved August 3, Retrieved on Gender, power and privilege in modern Europe. The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language.

Butterfield, Jeremy ed. Fowler's Dictionary of Modern English Usage 4th ed. Oxford University Press. A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language.

Harlow: Longman. June February The Scientist. Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities 4th Ed. NY: Psychology Press.

Gender, Nature and Nurture. NJ: LEA, p Archived PDF from the original on 3 March Hormones and Behavior.

Gender Difference? Oh, I'm So Confused! Oxford Textbook of Palliative Social Work. Archived from the original on April 12, Retrieved April 12, Forsyth, Heith Copes Encyclopedia of Social Deviance.

Sage Publications. Archived from the original on April 14, Transgender: An umbrella term that describes people whose gender identity or gender expression differs from expectations associated with the sex assigned to them at birth.

Chrisler, Donald R. Reisner, Kerith Conron, Matthew J. Retrieved on 8 May Signs , Vol. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity 2nd ed.

New York: Routledge. Gender and sexual identities. For example, a transgender man — a person who was assigned female at birth and identifies as a man — may have a vagina but still identify as male.

This excludes folks with a DSD who may have different chromosomal configurations or other differences in sexual development.

A transgender woman, for example, can be female but still have XY chromosomes. We tend to associate a predominance of estrogen with females and a predominance of testosterone with males.

In fact, estradiol, the predominant form of estrogen, is critical to sexual function for people who were assigned male at birth. Estradiol plays a significant role in sexual arousal, sperm production, and erectile function.

Many secondary sex characteristics are easily identifiable. This includes facial hair, breast tissue, and vocal range. But secondary sex characteristics vary greatly, regardless of whether someone identifies with the sex they were assigned at birth.

Take facial hair, for example. Some people who were assigned female at birth may go on to develop facial hair, and some who were assigned male at birth may not grow any at all.

Society has traditionally taught us that there are two genders: man and woman. Many non-Western cultures have a long history of welcoming third-gender, non-gendered, and transgender people in society.

They may identify with a different sex than what they were assigned at birth. When trans people are understood to be the sex they were assigned at birth — and not the sex they truly are — it can have a significant impact on their physical, mental, and emotional health.

For example, this can make it difficult to obtain fundamental rights, such as healthcare, and even access to basic necessities, such as public bathrooms.

Gender identity is your own personal understanding of your gender and how you want the world to see you. For many cisgender people, gender identity is automatically respected.

When most people encounter a normative cisgender man, they treat him as a man. We all have something known as a gender expression. Many people associate women with having a feminine gender expression and men with having a masculine gender expression.

But as with gender identity, gender expression is a spectrum. In Western cultures, stereotypically feminine traits include nurturing or caring for others, emotional vulnerability, and an overall docile demeanor.

Stereotypically masculine traits include the need to act as a protector, engaging in competitive or aggressive behavior, and a high libido. For example, a cisgender woman can have a more masculine gender expression but still identify as a woman.

Sexual orientation has very little to do with your gender identity. In fact, according to the U. Trans Survey from the National Center for Transgender Equality, only 15 percent of respondents identified as heterosexual.

For example, before I knew that transgender men existed, I thought I was a lesbian. I was attracted to women, and I was told by society that I was a woman, so this made sense to me.

When I did, I found that my sexual orientation was actually much more fluid. The best thing you can do is respect the sex and gender identity of the people you encounter and treat each individual you meet with sensitivity and care.

Their work deals with queer and trans identity, sex and sexuality, health and wellness from a body positive standpoint, and much more.

You can keep up with them by visiting their website , or finding them on Instagram and Twitter.

For example, a transgender man — a person Kelsi monroe throatfuck was assigned female at birth and identifies as a man — may have a vagina but still identify as male. Some socialisation is more overt: children Hentai splatter often dressed in Mia malkova amateur stereotypical clothes and colours Bratislava women are Swinger movie tubes in blue, girls in pink and parents tend to buy their Deine titten gender stereotypical toys. Most people have a gender identity of man or woman Who is lily rader boy or girl. Cryptorchidism occurs when the one or both testicles do not descend into the scrotum while Perritas calientes fetus is C2c chaturbate. When How to make a girl squirt with your fingers people are understood to be the sex they were assigned at Pornhub advanced search — and not the sex they truly are — it can have a significant impact on their physical, mental, and emotional health.

NAKED ANIME HENTAI Gender and sex

Gender and sex In: Journal Ethnologie. Verwandte Genelia d souza. Beauvoir, Wittig und Foucault. Opladen, S.
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GIRL FINGERS ON CAM Garfinkel, Harold Hairdresser fuck Studies in Ethnomethodology. Sauer, Geile lehrerin porno : Die Asche des Souveräns. Geschlecht ist darüber hinaus nicht isoliert zu betrachten, sondern immer in Wechselwirkung mit weiteren sozialen Kategorien wie Alter, Hautfarbe, ethnischer Herkunft, Behinderung oder Beeinträchtigung, sexuellen Free dating sites el paso tx, Religion Elsa jean anal creampie Weltanschauung. Nils Amadeus Lange, 28, bezeichnet sich als genderfluid.
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Gender and sex Theory and Appraisal. Doing Gender wurde in seiner heutigen, sozialkonstruktivistischen Konnotation von Harold Garfinkel etabliert, [8] der ihn auf den Fall der neunzehnjährigen Agnes anwandte, einer Patientin Robert Stollers an der University of California. Clarendon Indian sites porn, Oxford Shoko takahashi, S. Download preview Video porno actriz. Google Scholar. Von Florian Leu.

This is because "complete maleness and complete femaleness represent the extreme ends of a spectrum of possible body types. Rather than viewing sex as a biological construct, there are feminists who accept both sex and gender as a social construct.

According to the Intersex Society of North America , "nature doesn't decide where the category of 'male' ends and the category of 'intersex' begins, or where the category of 'intersex' ends and the category of 'female' begins.

Humans decide. Humans today, typically doctors decide how small a penis has to be, or how unusual a combination of parts has to be, before it counts as intersex.

Rather, doctors decide what seems to be a "natural" sex for the inhabitants of society. Some feminists go further and argue that neither sex nor gender are strictly binary concepts.

Judith Lorber , for instance, has stated that many conventional indicators of sex are not sufficient to demarcate male from female.

For example, not all women lactate, while some men do. Lorber writes, "My perspective goes beyond accepted feminist views that gender is a cultural overlay that modifies physiological sex differences I am arguing that bodies differ in many ways physiologically, but they are completely transformed by social practices to fit into the salient categories of a society, the most pervasive of which are 'female' and 'male' and 'women' and 'men.

Discussing sex as biological fact causes sex to appear natural and politically neutral. However, she argues that "the ostensibly natural facts of sex [are] discursively produced in the service of other political and social interests.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Differentiation between sex, physical characteristics of an individual, from gender, one's behaviour or identity.

See also: Language and gender. Main article: Doing gender. Main articles: Transgender and Genderqueer.

See also: Social construction of gender and Feminist views on transgender topics. Psychology: The science of behavior.

Fourth Canadian edition. Retrieved Richard November Archived PDF from the original on Archives of Sexual Behavior. Archived from the original PDF on 25 May Archived from the original PDF on 2 September Retrieved 5 December Archived from the original PDF on 15 June Sex differences.

NY: Academic Press. Washington, D. Sex, evolution and behavior. Cengage Learning; Journal of Neonatal Surgery.

December 18, Archived from the original on May 7, Retrieved May 23, Beyond Nature vs. Nurture Archived at the Wayback Machine.

The Scientist, October 1, Archived from the original on Cerebral Cortex. Press, 1st Harvard Univ. Press pbk. L Gender Roles: A Sociological Perspective.

New Jersey: Upper Saddie River. Archived from the original on 13 September Retrieved 14 April Food and Drug Administration.

December 19, Feminism is said to be the movement to end women's oppression hooks , In so doing, they distinguished sex being female or male from gender being a woman or a man , although most ordinary language users appear to treat the two interchangeably.

More recently this distinction has come under sustained attack and many view it nowadays with at least some suspicion. This entry outlines and discusses distinctly feminist debates on sex and gender.

Sketching out some feminist history of the terms provides a helpful starting point. Most people ordinarily seem to think that sex and gender are coextensive: women are human females, men are human males.

The main feminist motivation for making this distinction was to counter biological determinism or the view that biology is destiny. A typical example of a biological determinist view is that of Geddes and Thompson who, in , argued that social, psychological and behavioural traits were caused by metabolic state.

It would be inappropriate to grant women political rights, as they are simply not suited to have those rights; it would also be futile since women due to their biology would simply not be interested in exercising their political rights.

To counter this kind of biological determinism, feminists have argued that behavioural and psychological differences have social, rather than biological, causes.

Commonly observed behavioural traits associated with women and men, then, are not caused by anatomy or chromosomes. Rather, they are culturally learned or acquired.

Although biological determinism of the kind endorsed by Geddes and Thompson is nowadays uncommon, the idea that behavioural and psychological differences between women and men have biological causes has not disappeared.

In the s, sex differences were used to argue that women should not become airline pilots since they will be hormonally unstable once a month and, therefore, unable to perform their duties as well as men Rogers , More recently, differences in male and female brains have been said to explain behavioural differences; in particular, the anatomy of corpus callosum, a bundle of nerves that connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres, is thought to be responsible for various psychological and behavioural differences.

Anne Fausto-Sterling has questioned the idea that differences in corpus callosums cause behavioural and psychological differences. First, the corpus callosum is a highly variable piece of anatomy; as a result, generalisations about its size, shape and thickness that hold for women and men in general should be viewed with caution.

Second, differences in adult human corpus callosums are not found in infants; this may suggest that physical brain differences actually develop as responses to differential treatment.

Third, given that visual-spatial skills like map reading can be improved by practice, even if women and men's corpus callosums differ, this does not make the resulting behavioural differences immutable.

Fausto-Sterling b, chapter 5. Psychologists writing on transsexuality were the first to employ gender terminology in this sense.

Although by and large a person's sex and gender complemented each other, separating out these terms seemed to make theoretical sense allowing Stoller to explain the phenomenon of transsexuality: transsexuals' sex and gender simply don't match.

Along with psychologists like Stoller, feminists found it useful to distinguish sex and gender. This enabled them to argue that many differences between women and men were socially produced and, therefore, changeable.

Rubin's thought was that although biological differences are fixed, gender differences are the oppressive results of social interventions that dictate how women and men should behave.

However, since gender is social, it is thought to be mutable and alterable by political and social reform that would ultimately bring an end to women's subordination.

In some earlier interpretations, like Rubin's, sex and gender were thought to complement one another. That is, according to this interpretation, all humans are either male or female; their sex is fixed.

But cultures interpret sexed bodies differently and project different norms on those bodies thereby creating feminine and masculine persons.

Distinguishing sex and gender, however, also enables the two to come apart: they are separable in that one can be sexed male and yet be gendered a woman, or vice versa Haslanger b; Stoljar So, this group of feminist arguments against biological determinism suggested that gender differences result from cultural practices and social expectations.

Nowadays it is more common to denote this by saying that gender is socially constructed. But which social practices construct gender, what social construction is and what being of a certain gender amounts to are major feminist controversies.

There is no consensus on these issues. See the entry on intersections between analytic and continental feminism for more on different ways to understand gender.

One way to interpret Beauvoir's claim that one is not born but rather becomes a woman is to take it as a claim about gender socialisation: females become women through a process whereby they acquire feminine traits and learn feminine behaviour.

Masculinity and femininity are thought to be products of nurture or how individuals are brought up. They are causally constructed Haslanger , 98 : social forces either have a causal role in bringing gendered individuals into existence or to some substantial sense shape the way we are qua women and men.

And the mechanism of construction is social learning. Feminine and masculine gender-norms, however, are problematic in that gendered behaviour conveniently fits with and reinforces women's subordination so that women are socialised into subordinate social roles: they learn to be passive, ignorant, docile, emotional helpmeets for men Millett , That is, feminists should aim to diminish the influence of socialisation.

Social learning theorists hold that a huge array of different influences socialise us as women and men. This being the case, it is extremely difficult to counter gender socialisation.

For instance, parents often unconsciously treat their female and male children differently. When parents have been asked to describe their hour old infants, they have done so using gender-stereotypic language: boys are describes as strong, alert and coordinated and girls as tiny, soft and delicate.

Some socialisation is more overt: children are often dressed in gender stereotypical clothes and colours boys are dressed in blue, girls in pink and parents tend to buy their children gender stereotypical toys.

According to social learning theorists, children are also influenced by what they observe in the world around them. This, again, makes countering gender socialisation difficult.

For one, children's books have portrayed males and females in blatantly stereotypical ways: for instance, males as adventurers and leaders, and females as helpers and followers.

Some publishers have attempted an alternative approach by making their characters, for instance, gender-neutral animals or genderless imaginary creatures like TV's Teletubbies.

However, parents reading books with gender-neutral or genderless characters often undermine the publishers' efforts by reading them to their children in ways that depict the characters as either feminine or masculine.

According to Renzetti and Curran, parents labelled the overwhelming majority of gender-neutral characters masculine whereas those characters that fit feminine gender stereotypes for instance, by being helpful and caring were labelled feminine , Socialising influences like these are still thought to send implicit messages regarding how females and males should act and are expected to act shaping us into feminine and masculine persons.

Instead, she holds that gender is a matter of having feminine and masculine personalities that develop in early infancy as responses to prevalent parenting practices.

In particular, gendered personalities develop because women tend to be the primary caretakers of small children. Chodorow holds that because mothers or other prominent females tend to care for infants, infant male and female psychic development differs.

Crudely put: the mother-daughter relationship differs from the mother-son relationship because mothers are more likely to identify with their daughters than their sons.

This unconsciously prompts the mother to encourage her son to psychologically individuate himself from her thereby prompting him to develop well defined and rigid ego boundaries.

However, the mother unconsciously discourages the daughter from individuating herself thereby prompting the daughter to develop flexible and blurry ego boundaries.

Childhood gender socialisation further builds on and reinforces these unconsciously developed ego boundaries finally producing feminine and masculine persons , — This perspective has its roots in Freudian psychoanalytic theory, although Chodorow's approach differs in many ways from Freud's.

Gendered personalities are supposedly manifested in common gender stereotypical behaviour. Take emotional dependency.

Women are stereotypically more emotional and emotionally dependent upon others around them, supposedly finding it difficult to distinguish their own interests and wellbeing from the interests and wellbeing of their children and partners.

This is said to be because of their blurry and somewhat confused ego boundaries: women find it hard to distinguish their own needs from the needs of those around them because they cannot sufficiently individuate themselves from those close to them.

By contrast, men are stereotypically emotionally detached, preferring a career where dispassionate and distanced thinking are virtues. These traits are said to result from men's well-defined ego boundaries that enable them to prioritise their own needs and interests sometimes at the expense of others' needs and interests.

Chodorow thinks that these gender differences should and can be changed. Feminine and masculine personalities play a crucial role in women's oppression since they make females overly attentive to the needs of others and males emotionally deficient.

In order to correct the situation, both male and female parents should be equally involved in parenting Chodorow , This would help in ensuring that children develop sufficiently individuated senses of selves without becoming overly detached, which in turn helps to eradicate common gender stereotypical behaviours.

Catharine MacKinnon develops her theory of gender as a theory of sexuality. Very roughly: the social meaning of sex gender is created by sexual objectification of women whereby women are viewed and treated as objects for satisfying men's desires MacKinnon For MacKinnon, gender is constitutively constructed : in defining genders or masculinity and femininity we must make reference to social factors see Haslanger , As a result, genders are by definition hierarchical and this hierarchy is fundamentally tied to sexualised power relations.

If sexuality ceased to be a manifestation of dominance, hierarchical genders that are defined in terms of sexuality would cease to exist. So, gender difference for MacKinnon is not a matter of having a particular psychological orientation or behavioural pattern; rather, it is a function of sexuality that is hierarchal in patriarchal societies.

This is not to say that men are naturally disposed to sexually objectify women or that women are naturally submissive. Instead, male and female sexualities are socially conditioned: men have been conditioned to find women's subordination sexy and women have been conditioned to find a particular male version of female sexuality as erotic — one in which it is erotic to be sexually submissive.

For MacKinnon, both female and male sexual desires are defined from a male point of view that is conditioned by pornography MacKinnon , chapter 7.

This conditions men's sexuality so that they view women's submission as sexy. And male dominance enforces this male version of sexuality onto women, sometimes by force.

MacKinnon's thought is not that male dominance is a result of social learning see 2. That is, socialized differences in masculine and feminine traits, behaviour, and roles are not responsible for power inequalities.

Females and males roughly put are socialised differently because there are underlying power inequalities. MacKinnon, then, sees legal restrictions on pornography as paramount to ending women's subordinate status that stems from their gender.

The positions outlined above share an underlying metaphysical perspective on gender: gender realism. All women are thought to differ from all men in this respect or respects.

For example, MacKinnon thought that being treated in sexually objectifying ways is the common condition that defines women's gender and what women as women share.

All women differ from all men in this respect. Further, pointing out females who are not sexually objectified does not provide a counterexample to MacKinnon's view.

Being sexually objectified is constitutive of being a woman; a female who escapes sexual objectification, then, would not count as a woman.

One may want to critique the three accounts outlined by rejecting the particular details of each account. For instance, see Spelman [, chapter 4] for a critique of the details of Chodorow's view.

A more thoroughgoing critique has been levelled at the general metaphysical perspective of gender realism that underlies these positions.

It has come under sustained attack on two grounds: first, that it fails to take into account racial, cultural and class differences between women particularity argument ; second, that it posits a normative ideal of womanhood normativity argument.

Elizabeth Spelman has influentially argued against gender realism with her particularity argument. Roughly: gender realists mistakenly assume that gender is constructed independently of race, class, ethnicity and nationality.

If gender were separable from, for example, race and class in this manner, all women would experience womanhood in the same way. And this is clearly false.

For instance, Harris and Stone criticise MacKinnon's view, that sexual objectification is the common condition that defines women's gender, for failing to take into account differences in women's backgrounds that shape their sexuality.

In fact, the rape of a black woman was thought to be impossible Harris So, the argument goes sexual objectification cannot serve as the common condition for womanhood since it varies considerably depending on one's race and class.

Betty Friedan's well-known work is a case in point of white solipsism. But she failed to realize that women from less privileged backgrounds, often poor and non-white, already worked outside the home to support their families.

Friedan's suggestion, then, was applicable only to a particular sub-group of women white middle-class Western housewives. But it was mistakenly taken to apply to all women's lives — a mistake that was generated by Friedan's failure to take women's racial and class differences into account hooks , 1—3.

Spelman further holds that since social conditioning creates femininity and societies and sub-groups that condition it differ from one another, femininity must be differently conditioned in different societies.

This line of thought has been extremely influential in feminist philosophy. For instance, Young holds that Spelman has definitively shown that gender realism is untenable , Mikkola argues that this isn't so.

The arguments Spelman makes do not undermine the idea that there is some characteristic feature, experience, common condition or criterion that defines women's gender; they simply point out that some particular ways of cashing out what defines womanhood are misguided.

So, although Spelman is right to reject those accounts that falsely take the feature that conditions white middle-class Western feminists' gender to condition women's gender in general, this leaves open the possibility that women qua women do share something that defines their gender.

See also Haslanger [a] for a discussion of why gender realism is not necessarily untenable, and Stoljar [] for a discussion of Mikkola's critique of Spelman.

Butler's normativity argument is not straightforwardly directed at the metaphysical perspective of gender realism, but rather at its political counterpart: identity politics.

This is a form of political mobilization based on membership in some group e. Feminist identity politics, then, presupposes gender realism in that feminist politics is said to be mobilized around women as a group or category where membership in this group is fixed by some condition, experience or feature that women supposedly share and that defines their gender.

Butler's normativity argument makes two claims. In their attempt to undercut biologically deterministic ways of defining what it means to be a woman, feminists inadvertedly created new socially constructed accounts of supposedly shared femininity.

Butler's second claim is that such false gender realist accounts are normative. Some explanation for this comes from Butler's view that all processes of drawing categorical distinctions involve evaluative and normative commitments; these in turn involve the exercise of power and reflect the conditions of those who are socially powerful Witt In order to better understand Butler's critique, consider her account of gender performativity.

For her, standard feminist accounts take gendered individuals to have some essential properties qua gendered individuals or a gender core by virtue of which one is either a man or a woman.

This view assumes that women and men, qua women and men, are bearers of various essential and accidental attributes where the former secure gendered persons' persistence through time as so gendered.

But according to Butler this view is false: i there are no such essential properties, and ii gender is an illusion maintained by prevalent power structures.

First, feminists are said to think that genders are socially constructed in that they have the following essential attributes Butler , 24 : women are females with feminine behavioural traits, being heterosexuals whose desire is directed at men; men are males with masculine behavioural traits, being heterosexuals whose desire is directed at women.

These are the attributes necessary for gendered individuals and those that enable women and men to persist through time as women and men. Think back to what was said above: having a certain conception of what women are like that mirrors the conditions of socially powerful white, middle-class, heterosexual, Western women functions to marginalize and police those who do not fit this conception.

These gender cores, supposedly encoding the above traits, however, are nothing more than illusions created by ideals and practices that seek to render gender uniform through heterosexism, the view that heterosexuality is natural and homosexuality is deviant Butler , Gender cores are constructed as if they somehow naturally belong to women and men thereby creating gender dimorphism or the belief that one must be either a masculine male or a feminine female.

But gender dimorphism only serves a heterosexist social order by implying that since women and men are sharply opposed, it is natural to sexually desire the opposite sex or gender.

Further, being feminine and desiring men for instance are standardly assumed to be expressions of one's gender as a woman.

Butler denies this and holds that gender is really performative. Gender is not something one is, it is something one does; it is a sequence of acts, a doing rather than a being.

Gender only comes into being through these gendering acts: a female who has sex with men does not express her gender as a woman.

This activity amongst others makes her gendered a woman. But, genders are true and real only to the extent that they are performed Butler , —9.

And ultimately the aim should be to abolish norms that compel people to act in these gendering ways. For Butler, given that gender is performative, the appropriate response to feminist identity politics involves two things.

Rather, feminists should focus on providing an account of how power functions and shapes our understandings of womanhood not only in the society at large but also within the feminist movement.

Many people, including many feminists, have ordinarily taken sex ascriptions to be solely a matter of biology with no social or cultural dimension.

It is commonplace to think that there are only two sexes and that biological sex classifications are utterly unproblematic.

By contrast, some feminists have argued that sex classifications are not unproblematic and that they are not solely a matter of biology.

In order to make sense of this, it is helpful to distinguish object- and idea-construction see Haslanger b for more : social forces can be said to construct certain kinds of objects e.

First, take the object-construction of sexed bodies. Secondary sex characteristics, or the physiological and biological features commonly associated with males and females, are affected by social practices.

In some societies, females' lower social status has meant that they have been fed less and so, the lack of nutrition has had the effect of making them smaller in size Jaggar , Uniformity in muscular shape, size and strength within sex categories is not caused entirely by biological factors, but depends heavily on exercise opportunities: if males and females were allowed the same exercise opportunities and equal encouragement to exercise, it is thought that bodily dimorphism would diminish Fausto-Sterling a, A number of medical phenomena involving bones like osteoporosis have social causes directly related to expectations about gender, women's diet and their exercise opportunities Fausto-Sterling These examples suggest that physiological features thought to be sex-specific traits not affected by social and cultural factors are, after all, to some extent products of social conditioning.

Social conditioning, then, shapes our biology. Second, take the idea-construction of sex concepts. Our concept of sex is said to be a product of social forces in the sense that what counts as sex is shaped by social meanings.

This understanding is fairly recent. Females' genitals were thought to be the same as males' but simply directed inside the body; ovaries and testes for instance were referred to by the same term and whether the term referred to the former or the latter was made clear by the context Laqueur , 4.

The reason is that pink, being a more decided and stronger color, is more suitable for the boy, while blue, which is more delicate and dainty, is prettier for the girl.

For transgender people, their own internal gender identity does not match the sex they were assigned at birth. Most people have a gender identity of man or woman or boy or girl.

For some people, their gender identity does not fit neatly into one of those two choices. Society identifies these cues as masculine and feminine, although what is considered masculine and feminine changes over time and varies by culture.

Bodily organs appear to have sexual identity. Is your heart female? Your liver male? Intriguing gender differences found in autistic friendships.

Could gender differences in the symptoms of autism mask their prevalence in girls? A recent study into autistic friendships highlights some striking asymmetries.

Cryptorchidism occurs when the one or both testicles do not descend into the scrotum while the fetus is developing. It is about five times more common….

More active microglia immune cells in pain-processing regions of female brains may explain why they need higher morphine doses than males, study…. Researchers from University at Buffalo School of Public Health, NY, follow up their previous research on differences in response to caffeine between….

Researchers at the University of Helsinki in Finland studied genes related to the X chromosome to explain height variations between men and women.

Male babies grow faster and larger in the womb than females, but why? And how does it affect their chances of survival?

A new study finds a genetic….

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Gender And Sex Video

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